The real ruble exchange rate, taking into account a rise in consumer prices in Russia and the USA, strengthened by 4.8 percent against the dollar in January-November 2002, the center of macroeconomic research of UNICON/MS Consulting Group reported. The nominal ruble exchange rate dropped 5.4 percent against the dollar over the same period.
The real ruble rate against the euro went down 7.2 percent over the first eleven months of 2002 while the nominal ruble rate reduced 16.4 percent against the euro. The research also stated that Russia's gold and currency reserves had increased $1.44bn, or 3.1 percent in November 2002.
Putin's official spokesman Dmitry Peskov commented on remarks in the US media about failures in launching nuclear-capable missiles in Russia
More than 5.8 million people voted for Nicholas Maduro at the presidential election in Venezuela. This is more than a quarter of registered voters. Why did those people vote for the man, who, as Western media write, took Venezuela to the brink of collapse?
It has long been understood that the West has been trying to subject Russian borders to total control. We have not seen such activity even during the Cold War