Ten researchers received the highest accolade in the world of science Saturday, as they accepted Nobel Prizes from the king of Sweden in a ceremony.
Literature award winner Harold Pinter of Britain missed the award presentation due to poor health, and let his publisher pick up the 10 million kronor (Ђ1 million; US$1.3 million) check, a gold medal and diploma.
The Nobel Peace Prize was handed out earlier Saturday in the Norwegian capital, Oslo, to Mohamed ElBaradei and his International Atomic Energy Agency.
Australians Barry J. Marshall and Robin Warren bowed to royals and dignitaries gathered in Stockholm's Concert Hall as they received the Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine from King Carl XVI Gustaf. They shared the prize for discovering a bacteria that causes ulcers _ an affliction that killed both Napoleon Bonaparte and author James Joyce, Nobel Assembly member Staffan Normark said.
The chemistry prize was given to Americans Robert H. Grubbs and Richard R. Schrock and Yves Chauvin of France for their development of a chemical "dance" that makes molecules swap atoms.
Their discoveries have created "fantastic opportunities to build new organic molecules," Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences member Per Ahlberg said in presenting the award. "It is among such molecules that we are finding new materials and new medicines."
Americans Roy J. Glauber and John L. Hall and German Theodor W. Haensch won in the physics category for their work in applying modern quantum physics to the study of optics and light.
The &to=http://english.pravda.ru/economics/2002/11/12/39412.html' target=_blank>Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences the only award not established in the will of the man who founded the prizes, Swedish industrialist Alfred Nobel _ went to Israeli-American Robert J. Aumann and U.S. citizen Thomas C. Schelling.
They were honored for their research on game theory, a branch of applied mathematics that uses models to study interactions between countries, businesses or people. The theory can be used to describe how actors make decisions by sizing up their opponents and anticipating their moves, while projecting an image of their own power, much like the Americans and Soviets did in the nuclear arms race of the Cold War.
Pinter, who has been treated for cancer in recent years, said last month that his health would prevent him from going to Stockholm. His publisher, Stephen Page, picked up the award on Pinter's behalf.
In a prerecorded lecture presented Wednesday at the Swedish Academy in Stockholm, the outspoken British playwright delivered a fiery attack against U.S. President George W. Bush and British Prime Minister Tony Blair, saying they should be prosecuted at an international court for the invasion of Iraq.
Per Wastberg, who chairs the Swedish Academy's Nobel Committee, told Swedish public broadcaster SVT that Pinter was taken to intensive care after the lecture, but had since recovered and was feeling better.
Last year's literature laureate, Elfriede Jelinek, also skipped the Nobel festivities, citing a social phobia.
The award ceremony was to be followed by a lavish banquet at City Hall, considered the biggest party of the year in Sweden, as the winners and their families mingle with royalty, diplomats, politicians, business leaders and special guests at a dinner broadcast live on Swedish television.
In keeping with tradition, the Italian city of San Remo, where Nobel died in 1986, donated about 10,000 flowers for decoration.
Rescuers found the pilot of one of the two Su-34 fighters that had collided in midair in the Far East on January 18