Source Pravda.Ru

Science and technology in Russia - 18 June, 2004

Scientists from the Blagonravov machine-science institute have come up with an extremely effective metal-rolling and metal-drawing process. It's an open secret that metal must be heated prior to processing because this makes it softer and more pliable. In a nutshell, this unique method heats up only those small metal sections, whose shape must be altered. These sections, which measure only several millimeters in size, are subjected to strong electric currents; this causes an unusual phenomenon known as "electronic wind" inside the metal crystal lattice. Metal becomes more pliable as a result. Meanwhile this waste-free production process, which doesn't cause any cracks or scale whatsoever, saves energy.

Besides, electric resistance is reduced during the wire-drawing process, thus making it possible to turn out thinner wire; substantial materials, i.e. copper, aluminium (for electric wires and cables), as well as tungsten (for incandescent-filament lamps) are saved as a result.

Up to 30 percent of metal is saved during the stainless-steel strip rolling process; such strips are, among other things, used to make razor blades. One such metal-rolling mill, which is currently being assembled for South Korea, will apparently produce an annual economic effect to the tune of $1 million.

Experts working for the Tomsk agriculture institute have developed a contraption, which converts organic waste into petroleum. This project was financed by a group of local companies. Such equipment has already been tested, and the Kuzbassrazrezugol public company has bought its experimental version. Leonid Chumazov, a graduate of the Tomsk university of automated control systems and radio-electronics, authored this project. According to Chumazov, available foreign equivalents don't process all kinds of organic waste; for their own part, Siberian scientists have patented a gasolene-production process.

This 10-square-meter unit can process up to 50 tons of organic feedstock every 24 hours. Methane, gasolene or diesel fuel can be obtained in line with preset parameters. Vladimir Nezamutdinov, director of the Tomsk agriculture institute's center for processing plant-and-animal waste, says this new thermal-electric-chemical complex is intended to process dung, manure, peat, sawdust and even garbage. A ton of dry organic waste yields up to 700 kg of petroleum.

Several regional enterprises all over Siberia have already ordered this unusual invention. The Tomsk agriculture institute will master its batch production before the year is out.

Omsk has already hosted the fifth international scientific conference dealing with the history of the Siberian countryside, its modern state and development prospects. Rural-development problems are seen as highly important, because the subsequent development of this vast Russian territory, which has an area of 10 million sq. km., is largely linked with farmers. (for comparison, Russia covers an area of 17 million sq. km. - Ed.)

The conference involved about 300 scientists from 21 Russian cities, as well as those from Armenia, Bulgaria, Kazakhstan, Poland, Uzbekistan, Ukraine and Germany. All in all, 120 reports have been heard at the conference. The delegates examined problems of the Siberian countryside's demographic, socio-economic, public-political and cultural development, as well as land-reclamation, land-cadaster and land-monitoring aspects, the history of rural populated localities, the history of local ethnic groups, etc.

A round-table discussion was organized within this conference's framework, with its participants discussing national agrarian policies during Russia's admission into the World Trade Organization. The next international conference to examine topical problems of the Siberian countryside will also be organized in Omsk in 2006.

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