Her mark was a world leading jump for the year.
Russia's Lebedeva, who won the long jump on Tuesday and was looking for a golden double at Osaka, took silver at 15.07.
She won the triple jump title at the 2001 and '03 world championships but was injured in '05.
Hrysopiyi Devetzi of Greece got the bronze at 15:04.
Defending champion Trecia Smith of Jamaica was injured this season.