Antonio Paolucci has been art superintendent in Venice, head of Florence museums and Italy's culture minister in 1995-96.
Paolucci, 68, has also served as the government commissioner overseeing the restoration of the Basilica of St. Francis in Assisi following a 1997 earthquake.
He replaces Francesco Buranelli, who was named secretary of a Vatican cultural office.
The Vatican museums gather hundreds of artworks from painters including Michelangelo and Raphael. The Sistine Chapel is the last stop on a tour of the museums.
Last year, 4.2 million people visited the Vatican museums.
The US is going to ban exports of Iranian oil to the world market from November 5 of this year. In turn, Iran threatens to block the passage of oil tankers of the Gulf countries through the Strait of Hormuz
The World Cup that is about to finish in Russia has shown that the Western propaganda machine has failed to create the image of Russia as a monster with "many tentacles." By and large, the Russians and the Ukrainians are close to each other