Anderson died in Leesburg, Virginia, following a brief illness, his family said.
Anderson took command of the Navy's Nautilus in 1957, when the submarine cruised to within 180 miles (290 kilometers) of the North Pole. The next year Anderson and his crew of 115 made the first voyage from the Pacific Ocean to the Atlantic Ocean by passing under the ice of the North Pole.
After retiring from the Navy, Anderson served as a consultant to Presidents John F. Kennedy and Lyndon B. Johnson, helping to create the Peace Corps. In 1964, he was elected to his first of four terms representing the sixth district of Tennessee in Congress, reports AP.
Anderson also was a businessman. In 1973, he became chairman of the board of directors of Digital Management Corp. He also served as director for Atlantic Union before founding the data management firm Public Management Corp. with his wife.