The discussion between the pope and Donald Tusk focused on "the Christian moral and religious values, which are part of Poland's patrimony," the Vatican said.
The statement also said the two discussed "traditionally good relations between Poland and the Holy See, which received a special impulse during the pontificate" of Polish-born Pope John Paul II.
Tusk, who won the elections on Oct. 21, also met with the Vatican's secretary of state, Cardinal Tarcisio Bertone, and its foreign minister, Archbishop Dominique Mamberti.
The premier also placed flowers on John Paul's tomb in the Vatican grottos.
Mysterious philanthropist, Rustem Magdeev, had agreed, at his own expense, to donate a sculpture of Rudolf Nureyev, made by Russian sculptor Zurab Tsereteli, to the Kazan Opera and Ballet Theatre