A U.N. climate conference has opened for two weeks of negotiations among 192 nations to forge a pact to secure the world from calamitous global warming.
Conference president Connie Hedegaard, U.N. climate chief Yvo de Boer and the U.N.'s chief climate scientist Rajendra Pachauri were set to address the thousands of delegates in Copenhagen on Monday.
Negotiations have dragged on for two years, only recently showing signs of breakthroughs with new commitments from the U.S., China and India to control greenhouse gas emissions, The Associated Press reports.
Security is tight as organisers expect 15 000 delegates and 100 world leaders to attend over the next two weeks.
On the eve of the summit, UN chief climate negotiator Yvo de Boer said the talks were in excellent shape. He told the BBC that many countries were now making pledges to curb greenhouse gas emissions.
"Never in 17 years of climate negotiations have so many different countries made so many pledges. It is unprecedented," de Boer was quoted by the BBC as saying.
According to him, offers to finance clean technology for poor countries were also coming through and talks were progressing on a long-term vision of massive carbon cuts by 2050.
Bulgaria was one of the nine newest European Union members states, who helped the rest of the block come up with a joint position ahead of the summit.
The nine Eastern European countries managed to negotiate better terms for themselves in the joint EU position on providing financial aid to developing countries on carbon emissions.
Bulgarian Prime Minister Boiko Borissov said "the decision guarantees that we will not be donors to countries such as China, India, Brazil and Russia," Sofia Echo reports.
The discovery of the submarine has unveiled a few "inconsistencies." For example, how can one explain the fact that the sub was found where it needed to be searched for from the start?