Los Angeles Superior Court judge Scott Millington issued the no-bail bench warrant and revoked Baldwin's probation after he failed to appear Friday "without sufficient excuse" and without his lawyer, according to court documents.
An after-hours call to Baldwin's attorney, Grant Hoagland, was not immediately returned.
Baldwin, brother of actors William, Stephen and Alec Baldwin, was required to meet with the judge in connection with a cocaine-possession case.
The case stemmed from the 47-year-old actor's arrest last year, when police found him and another man in a Santa Monica motel, possessing cocaine and drug paraphernalia.
Baldwin is undergoing treatment in hopes of getting two misdemeanor charges dismissed. Under California law, some drug offenders who obtain treatment can have the charges dropped upon successful completion of their rehabilitation.
At a progress report in February, Hoagland said Baldwin had passed 20 drug tests and was sober for 92 days.
Baldwin later opened up about his cocaine addiction in a series of confessional video diaries that were shown on ABC News' "Primetime." The video charted his progress through a three-month drug treatment program in Malibu .
"I've been very thorough in my recovery, and identified where I am powerless," Baldwin said. "And I'm truly powerless over cocaine. There's no question about that in my life."
Baldwin has appeared in the television series "Homicide: Life on the Street" and the movie "Car 54, Where Are You?"