The winners of six Nobel awards are:
_ Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine to Mario R. Capecchi and Oliver Smithies, of the United States, and Sir Martin J. Evans, of Britain , for groundbreaking discoveries that led to a powerful technique for manipulating mouse genes.
_ Nobel Prize in physics to Albert Fert, of France, and Peter Gruenberg, of Germany, for discovering a phenomenon that enables computers and digital music players to store reams of data on ever-shrinking hard disks.
_ Nobel Prize in chemistry to Gerhard Ertl, of Germany, for his studies of chemical reactions on solid surfaces, which are key to understanding questions such as why the ozone layer is thinning.
_ Nobel Prize in literature to Doris Lessing, of Britain, whom the Swedish Academy called "that epicist of the female experience, who with skepticism, fire and visionary power has subjected a divided civilization to scrutiny."
_ Nobel Peace Prize to former U.S. Vice President Al Gore and the U.N.'s Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change "for their efforts to build up and disseminate greater knowledge about man-made climate change, and to lay the foundations for the measures that are needed to counteract such change."
_ The Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences to Leonid Hurwicz, Eric S. Maskin and Roger B. Myerson, of the United States, "for having laid the foundations of mechanism design theory."