After a judge vacated his conviction, Miller smiled, and a courtroom of his family and friends cheered.
"I want to get on with my life, start a life, have a life," he said at a news conference after the court hearing. "I'm just thankful for this day."
The exoneration is the United States' 200th based on DNA evidence, according to the Innocence Project in New York, a nonprofit group that works to exonerate wrongly convicted inmates.
Miller, 48, had been found guilty of rape, robbery, aggravated kidnapping and aggravated battery. He was paroled in March 2006 and now works two jobs and lives with a family member in a Chicago suburb.
Results from a DNA investigation, ordered by attorneys last year, were returned earlier this month.
After Monday's court hearing, an officer removed the electronic monitoring bracelet from Miller's right ankle. Miller no longer has to register as a sex offender.
He had been arrested after a 44-year-old woman was attacked as she got into her car at a Chicago parking garage in September 1981.
The attacker raped the woman, put her in her car's trunk and ran away after two parking attendants approached him.
The garage workers later picked Miller out of a police lineup of suspects.
At the trial, Miller testified he was home watching a championship boxing match at the time of the crime. Still, the jury found him guilty and sentenced him to 45 years.
Last year, the Innocence Project persuaded Cook County prosecutors to conduct DNA tests on a semen sample taken from the woman's clothes.