Ayesh Bin Hajhooj al-Atwi was executed in the northern city of al-Jawf over smuggling hashish into the country.
Saudi Arabia follows a strict interpretation of Islam under which people convicted of murder, drug trafficking, rape and armed robbery can be executed.
Wednesday's execution brought to 77 the number of people, including two women, beheaded in the kingdom this year. Saudi executions are performed with a sword and in public as a deterrent.
The kingdom beheaded 38 people last year and 83 people in 2005.