Deputies of the State Duma (lower house of parliament) have ratified the Russian-Chinese Treaty of Good-Neighbourliness, Friendship and Cooperation. The treaty between the Russian Federation and the People's Republic of China was signed during the visit of Chinese President Jiang Zemin to Russia on July 16 of this year. According to Deputy Foreign Minister Alexander Losyukov, who submitted the treaty to the Duma, "it creates favourable conditions for the strengthening of good-neighbourliness, friendship and cooperation both in political and in trade, economic, scientific, technological, humanitarian and other areas". Losyukov explained that the treaty "formalises the principles and key aspects of mutual relations between the two states for a long time ahead". It is stipulated that Russia and China in their dealings with each other will not resort to use or threat of force, nor will exert any pressure against each other, while disagreements between them will be resolved exclusively by peaceful means. The Foreign Ministry spokesman drew attention to the fact the treaty "for the first time in the history of Russian-Chinese relations records absence of mutual territorial claims". Russia and China agreed not to take part in alliances or blocs, nor undertake any actions detrimental to the sovereignty, security and territorial integrity of both countries. The treaty also records Russia and Chinese's intention to make efforts to strengthen the central role of the UN in deciding international affairs, especially issues of peace. Russia and China also agreed to cooperate in combating terrorism, separatism and extremism.