Experience demonstrated that electronics is able to make breakthrough to increase the volume of internal production and start of the innovation processes in electronics will accelerate the formation of competitive economy.
For this reason, $12 billion is allocated for the development of such programs worldwide annually. Certainly, in the Soviet Union they did not receive such amount of money, but the state supported electronics. By 1991 the volume of electronics production in the USSR had increased more than 185 times and we had became one of the three biggest producers of electronics in the world.
In the Soviet times our domestic producers had to elaborate all the classes of integral diagrams, all transistors including microwave, connectors, detachers, passive components themselves for the reason of embargo existence. Nobody sold such details to us. Hundreds of domestic factories produced absolutely everything and it was not accidentally that our managers announced proudly, “USSR is the country which is the only one in the world following the USA in performing all the nomenclature of the electronic engineering”. Though this kind of pride was caused by circumstances, as no other countries had to do this. All other countries concentrated their efforts, money and scientific research on their best products. Taiwan produced monitors, printers and integral circuits for them, Korea produced memory circuits. As a result, every branch of electronics has countries-leaders with whom we are forced to compete in the global market. Moreover, these countries-leaders closely cooperate with one another. The stopped producing large TV sets long ago, as they are imported from the leading world producers – China and South-Eastern Asia (including the Japanese brands). This cooperation, on the one hand, allows to save money and, on the other hand, distribute resources and intellectual potential correctly.
Traditionally, our electronic industry concentrated resources on military, answering the requirements of rocket-building, astronautics, systems of control and computing while consumer goods were in a way considered to be waste products. The work connected with the military allowed to earn money, elaborate new technologies and brand-new technical devices. Moreover, the technology level and quality of these products corresponded with the world standards and sometimes even excelled it. By the 90s we began to produce more microelectronic devices and this demonstrated the entrйe to the intensive development of the element’s basis. The whole sub branch – special machine building – was established for this purpose. It produced technological, checking-measuring and analytical equipment which other countries wanted sell the USSR on no account.
Today electronic industry in Russia is organized in the following structure. There is Russian Electronics Corporation, Russian-Byelorussian Organization “Electronic Technologies” and “Scientific Center Corporation” Concern. In addition, there are more than 200 factories supplying electronic parts, but they currently use only ј of their potential. They are different in forms of ownership and their products, but all of them have one common purpose, namely increasing the volume of production and sales of electronic goods. There is a special system existing worldwide: they give money to the military who “pulls out”, as they used to say, civil technologies. Civil technologies are developed further and then they are used by the servicemen for elaborating the new ones on the basis of the old ones. And then everything begins all along. Today more than half volume of production in the domestic electronic industry is made up of the consumer goods. In 2000 they assimilated more than 800 kinds of such goods and about 100 kinds of medical equipment.
Nowadays in Russia there are 5-7 main directions of work. Nobody will sell us microwave equipment and we will have to produce it for the military purposes, but this equipment can also be used in other way (for example, mobile telephones used by many Russians will be modernized). In the production of processors we lag behind the global leaders, therefore we will produce only special devices of this kind, for example, signal processors, which are needed everywhere. We will work on development of nanotechnologies and elaborate maximally comfortable conditions for the scientists and designers. In other words, we are going to purchase abroad only the devices not having critical importance for military equipment and develop only the technologies and projects in which we can have breakthrough.
From this point of view the experience of the Radio Plant in the town of Egorshino draws our attention. The management of this plant says Russia already has the conditions for breakthrough in electronic industry.
The most vivid example of the world competitiveness of Egorshino Radio Plant is its cooperation with Stinol Plant producing refrigerators, which is one of the 11 factories of Merloni Concern. Egorshino Radio Plant supplies two electronic devices to Stinol: timer “No frost” and the indication device. The tender on the delivery of “No frost” timer was won from Advensis German company due to the principally new technical decision that allowed to diminish the level of product failures and to cut the production cost almost twice. Since September 2002, the annual volume of the delivery of the timer by Egorshino Radio Plant has increased 4.5 times and 90 percent of the demand the for Stinol. In July 2002 Merloni Concern demonstrated interest in the delivery of the timer on the assembly lines of the other 10 factories and currently the device models are tested in the factory in Manisa (in Western Turkey).
Similar situation happened with the delivery of the indication device. It is also installed in the refrigerators of Indesit brand of Family line series, monthly rate of sales of which is about 800 thousand articles.
XXI century is the epoch of information technologies. On the most part of the territory of the Russian Federation the density of population is not high, the use of the traditional optical fibred and satellite lines of communication is not expedient because of their high cost and the surplus transferring capacity. Here wireless means of communication fits better.
Radio stations produced by Egorshino Radio Plant work even under the severe conditions of the Far North and African deserts. For more than 20 years the radio stations of the Angara Complex are well-known in the global market, whose high safety rate and regular modernization allows this product to compete successfully with the acknowledged world leaders in the production of the SW-stations –the Australian “Kodan” and the Japanese “Icom”. This was confirmed by winning two tenders on the delivery of these systems of communication this year. These tenders were held by the hydro meteorological services of Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan with the participation of the above mentioned foreign companies. However, the preference was given to Angara-1 radio stations because of the high of the consumer qualities of the product.
The real sensation in the global market and the example of the effective use of the reserve of fundamental scientific research of Military and Industrial Complex is creating the radio equipment of new generation by Egorshino Radio Plant. Together with the Institution of the Earthly Magnetism and the Radio Waves Spreading of the Academy of Sciences of the Russian Federation the plant has completed the research of digital broadcasting according to the so-called “NLS technology” (the use of the noise-like signals for digital broadcasting in SW and USW radio bands). The technology of the wide band signals reception that was created on the original element basis allows the person to come in contact before you know where you are, wasting no time on the synchronization, and allows maintain this contact steadily, despite the well-known fact that the change of the condition of the ionosphere caused by the Sun perturbation, has always been one of the obstacles for the wide using SW radio stations.
No doubt, SW radio stations, the full-scale production of which is planned by Egorshino Radio Plant, will definitely find a wide use in military structures and commercial use in the regions with the small density of the population and a long distance between the inhabited localities. The use of the NLS technology allows to reach a considerable reticence of the broadcast because the emanated signal has a noise-like structure and a large width of emanation. Even the fixation of the fact of presence of the useful signal itself is difficult and the use of the cryptographic methods of processing the information guarantees the stability of the broadcasting channels. This has a special meaning, when the complete secrecy of radio station network or some of its separate components, including switchboard equipment and radio channels, is needed in the contemporary world.
The main tendency in the use of this equipment in the SW wave band is the creation of the sufficiently high-speed lines of communication in the long distances (up to 5000 km.) in the dot-dot mode of operation or radial regional networks of special destination, which are not dependent on the surrounding infrastructure (satellites, optical fibred, transmitter lines and others).
Angara – 5M radio station produced by Egorshino Radio Plant uses the technology of wide-band signals and the methods of increased algorithms of codification. It is the product of high technologies that suggests for the first time earlier inaccessible consumer functions: the adaptation of the channel of communication to the ionosphere condition according to the prognosis for passing radio waves and the result of the ionosphere sounding. The software program on determining the data of the transmitter location performs possible calculations of the optimal radio frequencies, performs an experimental sounding of waves passing the real radio line and then chooses the optimal frequency.
The used methods of accelerated algorithms of codification allow to broadcast speech, facts and TV-images with the total capacity up to several gigabytes for a twenty-four-hour period.
The suggested equipment allows to create the systems of remote access and solve the problem of the “last mile” in the distances inaccessible for the existing systems (up to several thousand kilometers).
In conditions of the approaching “informational boom” the global producers offer different options of solving the problem of increasing the capacity of radio waves. ITU (International Technical Unity) approved several directions of the digital standards for mobile communication for the creation of the new digital networks of radio communication. They acknowledged the use of NLS technology as one of the most perspective tendencies nowadays.
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