This planet faced a global catastrophe 30,000 years ago as a result of which mankind was destroyed by humans themselves. The phenomenon known today as genocide that began 30,000 years ago when homo sapiens came across a unique independent type of humans and destroyed them to seize more space on the planet.
Paleontology, the science about ancient creatures that once inhabited the planet has always been a quiet academic occupation. But today the science is gripped with stormy disputes between two research groups. They still fail to define the place of strange creatures Neanderthal men in the past of the Earth. They inhabited the planet for half a million of years and vanished without leaving a trace. They formed in Europe and lived there for hundreds of thousands of years and would not leave it. Those creatures had features that we now call primitive: big superciliary archs and massive jaws. Their heads were much bigger than modern people have as their brain was much bigger. It is not clear yet for what purposes they needed such a huge intellectual device.
The average male height was 1.65 m with the weight of about 90 kg and females were 10 cm shorter. They had a different structure of arms and legs: shorter forearms and shanks. Neanderthal men’s faces with wide pug noses that allowed them safely inhale very cold air produced a really proud and scary impression.
All evidence about Neanderthal men proves that they formed an individual culture different from the world of other hominids and the animal world; they knew how to use fire and made various tools of stone. At that, their methods of stone working differed from those that our homo sapiens ancestors used. It means that homo sapiens and Neanderthal men obtained knowledge from different sources. Neanderthal men traveled about the world, from Europe to the Middle East and brought stone instruments that had been made by craftsmen in the homeland.
Forty thousand years ago Neanderthal men began to burry their deceased. No other predecessors of humans but homo sapiens and Neanderthal men did so. Also, only humans and Neanderthal men knew what adornment was and used decorations.
It is not clear if Neanderthal men could speak. At least, the structure of their palate allowed them to speak. Neanderthal men were real hunters and hunted in groups. Neanderthal men and homo sapiens began to hunt each other and eat up bodies of defeated enemies about 40 thousand of years ago. That was a period when first homo sapiens appeared in Europe, the land of Neanderthal men. The two peoples coexisted on the territory for 10,000 years. About 30,000 years ago Neanderthal men lived in the south of Spain, in Gibraltar and the Pyrenees, and then vanished without leaving a trace.
Within the many years after 1856 when remains of Neanderthal men were first discovered in the Neanderthal valley in Germany researchers gave a clear explanation why they had vanished. In accordance with the Darwinism dogmas, Neanderthal men were declared next of kin and predecessors of humans. It was believed that at some stage Neanderthal men smoothly transformed into modern humans, and those who failed to transform just vanished as a result of natural selection and competition between more perfect and primitive species.
These days some researchers state that Neanderthal men merged with predecessors of euhominids. The hypotheses arose from the study of Neanderthal kids’ skulls that revealed some lineament of modern people. Portuguese researcher Joao Zilhao was the most ardent advocate of the theory after he discovered such skulls in Portugal; later similar skulls were discovered in France, Croatia and the Middle East.
In 1997, researchers from the University of Munich analyzed DNA of remains of the first Neanderthal men found in 1856. The study of 328 detected nucleotide chains allowed paleontologist Svante Paabo to make a sensational statement. He insisted that the difference between the genes of Neanderthal men and euhominids were too great to consider them relatives. The information was confirmed by similar studies of remains discovered in the Caucasus (Georgia) in 1999. A new sensation came from the University of Zurich where Spanish researcher Maricia Ponce de Leon and Swiss Christoph Zollikofer compared skulls of a two-year-old Neanderthal man and of a Cro-Magnon man of the same age. The result of the study was that cranial bones of the two kids had been forming in different ways which in its turn proved that the gene pools of both races radically differed.
Based on the above facts several researchers from the USA and Europe made up a conclusion that Neanderthal men were neither ancestors nor relatives of euhominids. Those were two different biological species that originated from different offshoots of ancient hominids. According to the species law, they could not interbreed and sire. So, Neanderthal men were a particular kind of sentinel beings generated by evolution of life on Earth. They were a special mankind that created their independent culture but were ruthlessly liquidated by our ancestors.
The results announced were a real shock. As it turned out, evolution was able to produce several different types of mankind, and Darwin’s evolution theory was smashed. It came to light that homo sapiens became dominating over the planet not through a peaceful merger with less developed congeners but with aggression and war, through liquidation of another civilized people.
Author of popular books about origin of humans Professor Jean-Jacques Hublin from the University of Bordeaux is an advocate of the new approach in the Neanderthal men study. He explains why the revelation about liquidation of Neanderthal men by homo sapiens turned out to be so shocking. For many years it was believed that Homo sapiens was a synonym for culture, and the scheme was quite agreeable for many. But suddenly archeological digs demonstrated that Neanderthal men were no primitive semi-beasts as it had been believed. They had culture of their own. At the same time, many researchers began to ascribe the relation of Neanderthal men to homo sapiens. They were trying to prove that Neanderthal men were just a variety of euhominds.
It is a problem why the idea of existence of another mankind with a culture different from ours is so much disagreeable for some people. Since WWII anthropologists have been trying to demonstrate that all people including Neanderthal men are equal. It seems that they want to atone the fault of researchers whose teaching about the existence of various races was employed by the Nazi ideology. The same logic together with the post-colonial syndrome makes some experts deny cannibalism with Neanderthal men and our ancestors, Cro-Magnon men. The idea that a more developed variety of people liquidated other people in the course of evolution to seize domination over the planet is the revival of racist concepts to these researchers.
Today it is a real taboo for anthropologists to state that the Neanderthal culture differed from the culture of our ancestors and was more primitive, that they borrowed many of technical achievements and skills from Cro-Magnon men. To say so sounds like declaring Neanderthal men underdeveloped creatures.
Some historians state that Neanderthal men quite independently generated culture that was similar to that of Cro-Magnon men. They say it was either shortly before our ancestors came to Europe or immediately after the intrusion. Meanwhile, the two kinds of people were developing independently for 400,000 years.
Archeological facts reveal that Cro-Magnon men and Neanderthal men were living side by side in Europe for a long period of time. Each group had its territory for hunting and never broke the borders. Homo sapiens could eat not only meat and were effective in the use of their grounds. Neanderthal hunters had to leave their sites in search of game, but when they were back home they found their camps destroyed and occupied by strangers.
It is likely that homo sapiens managed to beat the strong and smart rival thanks to their ability to communicate and coordinate activity of separate groups in fighting the enemy. Neanderthal men were less sociable and were reluctant to contact.
Translated by Maria Gousseva