by Babu G. Ranganathan
The only evolution in nature that is observable and can be called “science” is micro-evolution (variations within biological kinds such as varieties of dogs, cats, horses, cows, etc.). Macro-evolution, or variations across kinds, is not science but faith.
The genes exist in all species for micro-evolution but not for macro-evolution, and there is no scientific evidence that random genetic mutations caused by natural forces such as radiation can or will generate entirely new genes for entirely new traits.
Another problem for macro-evolution is the issue of survival of the fittest. How can a partially-evolved species be fit for survival? A partially evolved trait or organ which is not completely one or the other will be a liability to a species, not a survival asset.
Genetic similarities between species are no proof of common biological ancestry because it cannot be proved that these similarities are due to a common biological ancestry via chance mutations.
What if the similarities between species are due to a common designer who designed similar functions for similar purposes? Only genetic similarities within a biological kind can be used as proof of relationship.
The reader is urged to do further research, including the issue of fossils, etc., via the Internet on this subject.
The author, Babu G. Ranganathan, has his B.A. degree with concentrations in theology and biology and has been recognized for his writings on religion and science in the 24th edition of Marquis "Who's Who In The East". The author's website may be accessed at www.religionscience.com.
Russian small missile ships - the Grad Sviyazhsk and the Great Ustyug - set off for a mission to the Mediterranean Sea