Science » Planet Earth
Author`s name Alex Naumov

How does my DNA work?

by Babu G. Ranganathan

Haven't you ever asked yourself how you got your nose, eyes, ears, fingers, toes, and everything else? How did your DNA bring all this about? Before we answer that question we need to know just a few simple things about DNA.

DNA is the abbreviated name for the genetic code and it is exactly that - a code. It is a molecular string of chemical information.

DNA is located in the nucleus of our cells and is made up of smaller molecules called nucleic acids. These smaller molecules in DNA are arranged in a sequence, just like the letters in a sentence. The sequence of these nucleic acids tells the cells in our body how to build our nose, eyes, hands, feet, and everything else. If the sequence for a particular trait isn't in our genetic code, then our bodies won't build it.

If the sequence for producing wings is not in the genetic code of an animal then that animal will not develop wings regardless of the environment.

The material our body uses to build new cells comes from the food we eat. Food is not just for energy. Food is also the "lumber" and "bricks" the body uses to build new cells. When a cell multiplies, it makes more cells of the same size. The only way to do this is by getting new material and that new material comes from food.

When food is digested and broken down to its basic amino acids, the various amino acids are then rearranged in a certain sequence to form cells that make up the various tissues and organs. What sequence these amino acids come together in is determined by the sequence of the molecules in DNA.

Thus, when you feed your dog a T-Bone steak, your dog's DNA will make sure that steak is digested and rearranged to form the various parts of your dog, but when you eat the same steak, your DNA will make sure that the steak is digested and rearranged to form human parts.

When scientists study genes, they are studying segments of the DNA molecule.

No one has shown that DNA can come into existence by chance! It takes DNA to get DNA! In other words, there must already exist DNA to direct the formation of more DNA. Yes, it is true that the individual molecules which make up DNA have been shown to be able to come into existence by chance. But, it has never been shown that those individual molecules can come together into a sequence by chance to form the genetic code.

The mathematical odds of even the simplest DNA molecule coming into existence by chance is comparable to a monkey typing the sequence of all the letters and words in a dictionary by randomly hitting keys on a computer keyboard.
Genetic information, like any other information, doesn't happen by chance. Therefore, it's far more logical to believe that the genetic similarities between all forms of life are because of a common Designer or Genetic Engineer (God) who designed similar functions for similar purposes in all the various forms of life.

Micro-evolution, or variations within a biological kind such as the varieties of dogs, cats, horses, and cows, is science but not macro-evolution. Macro-evolution, or variations across kinds, is not science but faith.

The genes exist in all species for micro-evolution but not for macro-evolution, and there is no scientific evidence that random genetic mutations caused by natural forces such as radiation can or will generate entirely new genes for entirely new traits for natural selection to act upon.

Another problem for macro evolution is the issue of survival of the fittest. How can a partially evolved species be fit for survival? A partially evolved trait or organ that is not completely one or the other will be a liability to a species, not a survival asset.

Many have confused natural selection with evolution itself. Natural selection can only "select" from biological variations that are produced by genes. Natural selection itself does not produce biological variations. Natural selection is just another way of saying "survival of the fittest". Only the fit individuals of a species will survive. That survival is called "selection". Nature, of course, does not do any conscious selecting. The term "natural selection" is simply a figure of speech.

Natural selection can only work with micro-evolution because only micro-evolution is genetically possible. Macro-evolution cannot occur by random genetic mutations caused by random environmental forces such as radiation anymore than randomly changing the sequence of letters in a cookbook will change it into a book on astronomy.

Thanks to popular scientists such as Richard Dawkins, millions have been duped into thinking that macro-evolution is natural.
Science cannot prove the existence of God but neither can science prove that we are here by chance.

Both sides of the evolution/intelligent design controversy should have opportunity to present their scientific arguments to students. No one is being forced to believe in God so there is no real violation of separation of church and state.
For further information on this topic, please read the author's Internet article "The Natural Limits of Evolution."

The author, Babu G. Ranganathan, has his bachelor's degree with concentrations in theology and biology and has been recognized for his writings on religion and science in the 24 th edition of Marquis "Who's Who In The East." The author's articles may be accessed here.

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