In the short term a hundred cubic meters of hydrogen will probably cost as much as a gram of gold
Water is of paramount importance to Earth. Unlike any other planet of the solar system, Earth has two-thirds of its surface covered with water. Our planet has plenty of water – 1.36 billion cubic meters. Unfortunately, 97 percent of water reserves are salt water. Glaciers and icebergs hold 75 percent of all fresh water reserves while subsoil water contains about 22 percent of fresh water.
Meteorological phenomena such as rains, thunderstorms, cyclones, anticyclones, tornadoes and typhoons occur in the troposphere. Cyclones and anticyclones control the weather, so to speak. An average cyclone of 1010 kilowatts would pour down millions of tons of water on a thousand-kilometer area. Typhoons have a tenfold capacity and carry a greater amount of water. It is still unclear whence all that water comes from.
Scientists believe that the main source of water on Earth is a natural process. In terms of engineering the process equals the work of a fuel cell that produces electricity and water by interaction between hydrogen and oxygen.
According to a scientific theory, natural fuel elements (cyclones) maintain the stability of hydrosphere. The dynamic processes in the electromechanical system of the planet supply energy to cyclones, anticyclones, and typhoons. The thing is that variable component of the planet's electromagnetic moment has a cycle lasting for 14 days, a 7-day semi-cycle defines the so-called 7-day weather cycle. A seven-day acceleration and deceleration of Earth's rotation leads to changing of the planet's kinetic energy that is 6 x 1022 kilowatts per hour. Deceleration results in Earth lagging behind while acceleration gives it approximately 1010 kilowatts.
While slowing down the speed of its rotation, the planet releases energy to space and cyclones are formed as a result. On the other hand, the planet receives energy during the acceleration and anticyclones are formed. The energy exchange takes place in the areas of broken crust. The most active center is located in a desert area of Mongolia where about 500 cyclones and anticyclones are formed. The Northern Hemisphere has centers of gravity (listed in order of activity decrease) in Central Asia, Caucasus, Alps and North Atlantic (southwest of Greenland).
Electromagnetic energy coming through the broken crust from the earth's crust goes up into the troposphere. That energy gives birth to a vortex spinning anti-clockwise in the Northern Hemisphere. Large strata of the atmosphere are sucked into the vortex. Plasma heats up and goes up bringing the air along.
Molecules are divided into light and heavy fractions at the second stage of the cyclone. As a result, hydrogen electrode (anode) appears on the “walls” of the eddy's canal. Cylindrical oxygen electrode (cathode) forms in the central part of the cyclone. A typical reaction gets under way i.e. hydrogen burns out (oxidizes) on the anode producing water in the end.
There are as many anticyclones as cyclones formed above the planet each year. However, an anticyclone's whirlpool is unsuitable from creating fuel elements. The anticyclone pulls in upper cool strata of the atmosphere, pressure is on the rise, weather is rain-free and sunny. Yet the hydrogen and oxygen reaction does not proceed.
Hydrogen production on an industrial scale can be launched using three methods. The first one involves electrolysis. The second one requires the conversion of methane at 9,000 Celsius or the blowing of water steam across the red hot coal at 10,000 Celsius.
All the above methods are power-consuming and can not be implemented without using bulky industrial facilities. Judging by more than fifty years of experience in the field, hydrogen can not be effectively used as fuel in the energy sector. About 50 percent of energy which could be produced by burning hydrogen in the thermal power plants would have to be spent on the production of hydrogen itself. In the nearest future, we may find ourselves in a situation when a hundred cubic meters of hydrogen will probably cost as much as a gram of gold.
A critical situation regarding fresh water is taking root in many countries of Africa and Middle East. Global warming is yet another detrimental factor to the situation. Many countries will be badly affected by the onset of deserts and droughts. Under the circumstances, water used for producing hydrogen becomes the same strategic resource as oil and gas.
However, oil and gas reserves will come to an end someday. The ocean and space are truly unlimited sources of renewable energy. Using the power of high tide and sea currents may double or even triple the electricity production within the next few years. The power of high tide alone equals the capacity of all power stations of the planet.
In the early 1990s scientists at the Moscow Energy Institute prepared draft calculations for direct-drive, dam-free hydraulic generators at 10-20 revolutions per minute. One-phase version of the equipment with capacity of 25-30 kilowatts could be built at the water flows with capacity 1-2 revolutions per minute i.e. equipment could be used on all flat country rivers of Russia without building dams.