In philosophical circles, debate often erupts between advocates of the "great person theory" and advocates of the "great events theory." Succinctly put, the former argue that certain people are destined for "greatness," while the latter argue that "greatness" arises when ordinary people are compelled to respond to extraordinary events
Although this article does not presume to resolve this disagreement, there is evidence suggesting that the truth may reside somewhere in the middle.
One of the greatest inspirations in my life was Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. His struggle for justice and equality for all Americans, and indeed for all people, motivated me not only to resume the university studies I had unceremoniously abandoned over a decade before, but also to attend law school. During this transitional period, I also studied the history of
Although BROWN dealt with racial segregation in public schools, its implicit message was that segregation in all public facilities was unconstitutional. So in 1955 civil rights activists in
Dr. King's involvement in the boycott evolved largely from the existence of two civil rights camps in
Dr. King became an excellent compromise. A new minister who had just moved to
But to view these "great events" as the sole architect of Dr. King's career ignores the personal attributes he brought to the civil rights struggle: an education that included an astute knowledge of Mahatma Gandhi's strategies of civil disobedience and non-violence; a natural and remarkable talent for public speaking; and the courage and commitment to continue the civil rights struggle beyond Montgomery's city limits.
Yet would Dr. King's legacy have been as renowned had he lived during the era of another civil rights activist, the legendary, yet unjustly forgotten, Paul Robeson?
Robeson was a multi-talented individual: an all-American football player, valedictorian of his graduating class at Rutgers University, law school graduate, singer, actor, linguist (able to speak roughly twenty languages), and ultimately outspoken crusader for civil rights. He sacrificed his movie career in the 1930s to protest the lack of dignified roles available to African-Americans, and he found his ability to act on the American theatrical stage incessantly limited by local laws and customs. Finding acceptance overseas, Robeson became enamored with what he perceived to be a lack of racial discrimination in the
Finally, in 1958, as the hysteria of McCarthyism was dying down, Robeson was able to stage a triumphant "comeback" concert at Carnegie Hall. But during the 1960s, when the civil rights struggle was in its heyday, age, poor health and the residual effects of the 1950s "red scare" forced Robeson into relative obscurity.
Whenever I think of Robeson's life, I recall the axiom that "prophets are not without honor, except in their own countries." While this axiom may not apply to the life of Dr. King, whose birthday is deservedly a national holiday in
During the early 1960s, "rock-and-roll" music was a growing phenomenon in
To find such social commentary, one had to turn to "folk music." This music's enduring power, as songwriter and labor activist Joe Hill explained, resided in the fact that "[a] song is learned by heart and repeated over and over." Therefore it was not surprising during the "protest" era of the early 1960s to see folk music playing a prominent role, and, for many fans of this music, the popularity of Phil Ochs was second only to Bob Dylan's.
Although Phil's early protest songs explored profound, and often controversial, social issues, they nevertheless reflected a subliminal optimism. "It is wrong," he once stated, "to expect a reward for your struggles. The reward is the act of struggle itself, not what you win. Even though you can't expect to defeat the absurdity of the world, you must make that attempt. That's morality, that's religion, that's art, that's life."
Oftentimes, however, no matter how great the intention or how noble the cause, idealism can succumb to disillusionment. The demise of Phil's idealism began in 1968. Dr. King and Robert Kennedy had both been assassinated, and Phil had witnessed first-hand the police response to anti-war protesters, who had gathered in
After these events, Phil would tell an audience in
But Phil's disillusionment had not entirely consumed him. He decided that in
Unfortunately, as Paul Robeson's life demonstrates, celebrities who desire to remain celebrities often have to remain non-controversial. Thus there was little chance of Elvis becoming Che.
Disillusioned by his Carnegie Hall experiment, Phil traveled to
One explanation often offered for Phil's journey from fame to obscurity is the topical nature of his songs. Like a musical news reporter (one of his albums, in fact, is entitled ALL THE NEWS THAT'S FIT TO SING), Phil often sang about the events of his day: the 1962 Cuban Missile Crisis, the 1963 assassination of civil rights leader Medgar Evers, the civil rights marches in Birmingham, Alabama, the United States invasion of the Dominican Republic in 1965, and the war in Vietnam. But to forget these songs is to forget that the underlying social problems addressed in them--racism, classism, unjustified warfare, greed and hypocrisy--still endure.
Many of the ancient Greeks believed it was logical, perhaps even noble, to end one's life instead of submitting to the evils of the world. While this proposition continues to be the subject of debate, one cannot help but ask, "If Phil were still alive, what would he think of today's world?" After witnessing the nation, almost forty years ago, giving Lyndon Johnson the ability to escalate American military involvement in Vietnam based on exaggerations about the "Gulf of Tonkin incident," how would Phil respond as this same nation was again led into war based on exaggerated claims about "weapons of mass destruction" in Iraq. How would he feel to see the courageous legacies of Dr. King, Medgar Evers and countless others replaced by sycophantic sell-outs like Colin Powell, Condoleezza Rice, and Clarence Thomas?
During the past few years there have been discussions about making a movie depicting Phil Ochs' life. But the box office failure of "Steal This Movie," a film about the life of anti-war activist and "Chicago Seven" defendant Abbie Hoffman, appears to have made the profit-driven
But it should be remembered that movies are not only made to entertain, but to immortalize. One of the tragedies of humanity is the failure to recognize greatness until it is too late. But the worst tragedy is to not recognize greatness at all. The legacy of Phil Ochs belongs not just to the "protest" generation, but to all who want prophets honored, not only in their own country, but throughout the world.
David R. Hoffman, Legal Editor of Pravda.Ru
Within the context of some narrowing of Europe's inequalities, Portugal is a country with evident relative impoverishment.