US lawmakers apply to the Congressional Research Service each time they need enough information for their activity. "The Transformation Diplomacy as the Diplomacy of the XXI Century" was one of the reports the Service issued at the end of August. At the time when the term ‘transformation diplomacy’ is vague for some experts it is very popular among American foreign policy makers.
Experts believed that the end of the Cold War era implied the end of the so-called “Westphalia peace”. According to the Westphalia principles, the main idea of international relations supposes that states in the balancing conditions on the international scene seek the most complete realization of their interests to wide extent. Now the official Washington declares a revolutionary change in the essence of international relations. It says that from now on the USA as the most powerful (or successful and progressive?) power will not only uphold its own interests but also interfere into other countries’ affairs with the view of establishing democracy principles, steady economic development and human rights protection in these countries. The idea looks rather positive and humane at first sight but in general it gives much food for reflection. It is undoubtedly that the USA and any other country where Americans desire to propagate democracy principles will have a different opinion of what is good or bad for these countries.
Also, will the endorsement of democracy substitute America’s national interests the way they are traditionally understood? Let us assume that Washington prohibits US companies to operate in Sudan, the country with an authoritarian regime. But will companies that want to receive profits absolutely conform to the appeal? What is more they may be deeply inspired with humanistic and democratic values too. Where do Americans plan to get fuel if there is no other source of it but Sudan?
The report of the Congressional Research Service makes the above issues not solved but even more acute. It is good that peaceful and diplomatic ways of achieving foreign policy goals is considered by the US supreme legislative authority. However, the actions planned are unlikely to be a success; and one may doubt that Washington is going to act unselfish.
The recent report of the Service analysts also gives formats of the new diplomacy. First of all, they suggest that the system of US foreign branch offices formed during the cold war must be reformed. Second, it is decided that increasing aid will help conduct America’s foreign policy principles. Third, now the importance of the so-called ‘public democracy’ is particularly emphasized. This public democracy means popularization of the USA’s positive image abroad which is still not really successful despite all the efforts that America is taking in this sphere. The report also gives a classification of countries that presents them as just forming, developing, reforming, reliable allies and repressive. It is clear that these repressive countries are the basic obstacle on the way of building the world that agrees with the American understanding of the world order. The USA has just a theoretic notion of this world that may be built some day. And the report of the Congressional Research Service issued in August proves that Washington would not give up these theories.
Translated by Maria Gousseva
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