Source Pravda.Ru


Troy Southgate examines late Italian philosopher Julius Evola’s Men Among the Ruins: Post-War Reflections of a Radical Traditionalist. PRAVDA.Ru will present this summary as a series.


And now we come to one of the most interesting chapters of the book, in which Evola questions whether the various areas of human existence have been affected by higher forces. In other words, by those of the supernatural or occult dimension. The decline of the West, in particular, is said to be a direct result of the hidden forces at work. Evola explains: "The occult war is a battle that is waged imperceptibly by the forces of global subversion, with means and in circumstances ignored by current historiography. The notion of occult war belongs to a three-dimensional view of history: this view does not regard as essential the two superficial dimensions of time and space (which include causes, facts, and visible leaders) but rather emphasises the dimension of depth, or the ‘subterranean’ dimension in which forces and influences act in a decisive manner, and which, more often than not, cannot be reduced to what is merely human, whether at an individual or a collective level." This seems clear enough. Indeed, the current of which Evola speaks transcends the governmental domain and concerns the forces which lie far beyond the purely exoteric plane. By "subterranean," Evola is alluding to the fact that such activity takes place not within the human subconscious, but as part of a deliberate plan which has been meticulously formed by capable and intelligent agents of subversion. But this third dimension should not be seen as some kind of ridiculous or convenient fantasy designed to account for the erosion of Tradition, it is a concept which is fully steeped in reality. Catholics regard the decline of traditional values and the onset of liberalism and moral decline as part of a divinely orchestrated process, although Evola believes that such a view need not rely on abstract metaphysics or theology. He cites the Classical idea in which the forces of the cosmos are waged against the forces of chaos: "To the former corresponds everything that is form, order, law, spiritual hierarchy, and tradition in the highest sense of the word; to the latter correspond every influence that disintegrates, subverts, degrades, and promotes the predominance of the inferior over the superior, matter over spirit, quantity over quality."

History undoubtedly has a more secretive side. Indeed, at times it becomes impossible to explain certain aspects in terms of their possessing a basic or fundamental causality. Evola is careful to warn against inventing ridiculous or fantastical notions to account for this more covert analysis of history: "The fact that those who have ventured in this direction have not restrained their wild imaginations has discredited what could have been a science, the results of which can hardly be overestimated. This too meets the expectations of the hidden enemy." Evola then mentions Disraeli’s well-known nineteenth-century admission, concerning the unseen forces that govern the world and create the necessary conditions for their own pernicious advancement. This brings us on to one of the most famous - or infamous - documents of all time, The Protocols of The Learned Elders of Zion, in which it is alleged that a secret Jewish cabal is intent on world domination. Evola does not defend its authenticity, however, he agrees with Rene Guenon that secret organisations of this nature are not likely to write everything down in great detail and that - similar to the conclusions expressed in Professor Cohn’s Warrant For Genocide - it was probably a Tsarist police conspiracy. But he does go on to say that "the only important and essential point is the following: this writing is part of a group of texts that in various ways (more or less fantastic and at times even fictional) have expressed the feeling that the disorder of recent times is not accidental, since it corresponds to a plan, the phases and fundamental instruments of which are accurately described in the Protocols." But what of the contention that the individuals behind the conspiracy are apparently Jews: "One of the means employed by the occult forces to protect themselves consists of directing their opponents’ attention towards those who are only partiallyresponsiblefor certain upheavals, thus concealing the rest of the story, namely a wide sequence of causes."

Evola also discounts the theory that the conspiracy is being waged by agents of the Judaic religion, particularly as the occult forces themselves inspired the Renaissance, Darwinism and other rationalist developments which fly directly in the face of such principles. The fact that Israeli troops can often be seen battling in the streets of Jerusalem with fanatical Zionist rabbis also demonstrates that the hidden powers cannot possibly be genuinely connected to Judaism. The Protocols also allege that Judaism is working in close allegiance with Freemasonry, although Evola only accepts that the foundation of the Grand Lodge of London in 1717 brought it into line with the grand plan of subversion. This is correct. Masons on the European mainland differ significantly from their English cousins and many associated with the Grand Orient look upon Egypt as being the traditional fount of ancient knowledge and wisdom, rather than to specifically Jewish sources. This is reflected in the absence of the Memphis-Mithraim rite from the practices of the Grand Lodge. But at the same time, however, Judaeo-Masonry has often been used as a vehicle for global subversion and Evola compares this process with the regression of the caste system. When the rot gradually sets in at the very top, it tends to infect the whole body and thus sets off a new chain of events. Furthermore, "[r]egardless of the role played by Jews and Masonry in the modern subversion, it is necessary to recognise clearly the real historical context of their influence, as well as the limit beyond which the occult war is destined to develop by employing forces that not only are no longer those of Judaism and of Masonry, but that could even totally turn against them."

Using some of Rene Guenon’s ideas, Evola now attempts to examine some of the methods which are used by the global subversives. Firstly, "scientific suggestion" is used in order to explain history purely in terms of key events being influenced by political, social or economic factors. Secondly, whenever the first method becomes impossible the hidden forces decide to use the "tactic of replacement" instead. This involves the dissemination of certain philosophical ideas which can be used as a diversion for those events which defy a positivist explanation. It functions as a means of preventing the intellectuals from understanding the true nature of what is really going on in the world. This leads us towards the third strategic category: the "tactic of counterfeits." This latter stage is essentially designed to explain away those factors of the conspiracy which unavoidably find their way into the mainstream and cause a backlash. This development, according to Evola, can often take the form of a Traditional reaction to the degeneration of society, although the occult powers then use terms such as "anachronism," "anti-history," "immobilism" and "regression" in order to counteract this process and thus prevent their enemies from winning popular support.

The fourth ploy is the "tactic of inversion," in which the enemy concentrates its efforts on attacking the spiritual realm: "After limiting the influence that could be exercised in this regard by Christianity, through the spread of materialism and scientism, the forces of global subversion have endeavoured to conveniently divert any tendency towards the supernatural arising outside the dominant religion and the limitation of its dogmas." This means that the individual is encouraged to lose him or herself in shallow distractions such as psychology and spiritualism, rather than try to advance in a truly superior and supernatural way. Evola criticises the West’s distorted analysis of Eastern mysticism, and the fact that the traditional wisdom of the Orient has often been repackaged within Masonry or Theosophy and forcibly reconciled with Western values. And, due to this process of dilution, it has been easily torn to shreds by the secret denizens of the conspiracy and thus laughably rejected as pure superstition. Another method is the "tactic of ricochet," through which those sympathetic to Tradition are falsely assured that by attacking the remaining traditionalist structures they are somehow advancing their own cause: "Those who do not realise what is going on and who, because of material interests,attack Tradition in like-mindedpeople sooner or later must expect to see Tradition attacked in themselves, by ricochet." Modern States, of course, use infiltration in order to sow the seeds of ideological discord. This can lead to personality clashes, greed and self-advancement at the expense of the very Idea itself.

The sixth category is the "scapegoat tactic," which results in the targeting of individuals or groups which usually turn out to be mostly blameless. The Protocols, for example, may seem fairly accurate when it comes to identifying the Masons and the Jews as the source of all our problems, but to scapegoat people to this extent is misleading and unrealistic. The next step - the "tactic of dilution" - relates to the use of nationalism as a means of bringing people down to a common level, rather than of restoring true perspective and hierarchy. This process "dilutes" the Traditional components inherent within nationalistic ideas and redirects them in accordance with the objectives of the secret powers. One method is the way in which revolutionary nationalists have eroded all traces of that which preceded their ascending to power, thus helping to bring down the final vestiges of Tradition. Using an example from the psychoanalytical sphere, Evola tells us that "[a]mong those who are capable of a healthy discernment there has been a reaction against the coarsest forms of this pseudo-science, which correspond to pure or ‘orthodox’ Freudianism. The tactic of dilution was employed again; the formulation and spread of a spiritualised psychoanalysis for more refined tastes was furthered. The result was that those who react against Freud and his disciples no longer do so against Jung, without realising that what is at work here is the same inversion, though in a more dangerous form because it is subtler, and a contaminating exegesis ventures more decidedly into the domain of spirituality than in the case of Freud."

The next tactic is the "deliberate misidentification of a principle with its representatives." In other words, confusing an idea or a principle with those purporting to represent or advance it. This leads to the defilement or devaluation of the idea itself. Evola’s final evaluation of subversive tactics examines the concept of "replacing infiltrations." This is when an idea or an institution has degenerated so much that it becomes unrecognisable. One thinks of the comparative emptiness of Grand Lodge Masonry when compared to its Grand Orient rival, or the Church of England’s systematic take-over by the organised homosexual lobby: "These forces, while leaving the appearances unchanged, use the organisation for totally different purposes, which at times may even be the opposite of those that were originally its own." Evola’s solution to this multifarious problem involves a Traditionalist awakening during which its most devoted adherents realise the extent to which the battle is being waged on the occult plane. However, he also accepts that we do not presently have the men capable of fighting this disease.

Troy Southgate submitted this work to PRAVDA.Ru

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