Chernyshenko headed Russia's bid to host the Winter Olympics in the Black Sea port city.
International Olympic Committee President Jacques Rogge was told of the appointment during an informal meeting with Russian President Vladimir Putin, the organizing committee said in a statement posted on its Web site Thursday.
A formal announcement will be made next week.
"In the next seven years we have to create the best possible conditions for hosting the games at the highest level. To this end we have formed the most effective project management structure for achieving this result," Chernyshenko said in the statement.
Chernyshenko had been considered one of the front-runners for the position. Deputy Prime Minister Alexander Zhukov, another front-runner, will head the government's supervisory board overseeing the organizers. Semyon Vainshtok, who formerly headed the state-run pipeline monopoly OAO Transneft, will head the state-run corporation overseeing construction of venues and infrastructure.
Russia hosted the 1980 Olympics, but has never held the Winter Games.