A new term has recently appeared among archaeologists - "out-of-place artifact". It goes about objects of ancient origin related to technologies, the level of which does not correspond to the era that they come from. As a rule, the technological level of such findings is much higher. In particular, it goes about so-called "Baghdad Batteries" that were found in Iraq. The findings are more than 2,000 year old.
The finding was made near Baghdad by German archaeologist Wilhelm Konig in 1938. The discovery looked like clay jugs, the necks of which were sealed with asphalt plugs. Copper-wrapped iron rods were sticking out of the plugs. The jars would be filled with sour liquid, possibly vinegar or wine: the inner surface of the jars was corroded. The liquid served as electrolyte, whereas the jars themselves were undoubtedly intended to generate electricity.
Specialists from Smith College (Massachusetts) made a copy of the ancient device. It turned out that the ancient batteries were capable of producing more than one volt of electricity. Just try to imagine that it was happening thousands of years before the technology was invented "officially!"
There is no documented record of what the jars were used for exactly, but it is obvious that it was a kind of battery, the researchers of Smith College concluded. The scientists believe that the batteries could be used to apply coating by electroplating, that is to apply a layer of one metal (gold) on the surface of another metal (silver). This technology is still used in Iraq.
In different parts of the world, archaeologists have repeatedly found various items related to medical technology. Thus, during excavations of the ancient city of Pompeii, in the temple of Vestal Virgins, archeologists found tools that bore a striking resemblance to medal tools that gynecologists use in modern days.
In 2008, in Ust-Ilmen Necropolis, an ancient grave of a woman was discovered. Next to her remains, a silver amphora was resting. The amphora contained ten human teeth with traces of medical instruments on them. Researchers at the Poltava Center of Archaeology assumed that the ancient woman was a dentist. Professional skills and technologies used by dentists of ancient civilizations were on quite a high level.
It appears that long before Christ, people were able to perform surgery. For example, in Egypt, the Americas and other parts of the globe, surgical instruments were found and human skulls with traces of trepanations. Yet, researchers believe that the procedure of trepanation was used rather for religious purposes. In the parietal part of the skull, ancient "surgeons" would drill an oval orifice to create a "third eye" and prompt clairvoyant abilities. Once the wound would heal, a person would become a priest.
Ancient civilizations practiced prosthetic care. In December 2006, during excavations of a Bronze Age settlement of Shahr-e Sukhteh (in south-eastern Iran) an ancient prosthetic eyeball was discovered. The finding was the shape of a hemisphere; its diameter was a bit more than 2.5 centimeters. The item was made of very light material - scientists suggested that it was bitumen paste. The surface of the artificial eye was covered with a thin layer of gold. In the center, there was a circle engraved depicting the eye iris and golden ray lines. On both sides, there were holes drilled, through which the artificial eyeball would be attached into the eye orbit with the help of gold wire. Near the prosthetic eye, there was a female carcass found. The woman was too tall for that time - 1.82 meters. The remains were dated from about 2900-2800 BC. Most likely, researchers believe, the owner of the artificial eyeball was a priestess or a member of a noble clan.
The decision to exclude Portugal, the country with one of the best records in managing Covid-19, is typical of a Government that has lost the plot